This chapter provides an overview of the Irish Traveller community, examining origins, culture, issues that affect Travellers and legislative developments. It also provides a small amount of information on the Roma community in Ireland. It is important to note that the term ¿Roma¿, as defined by the Council of Europe, refers to Roma, Sinti, Kale and related groups in Europe, including Travellers and Eastern groups (Dom and Lom), and covers the wide diversity of the groups
concerned, including persons who identify themselves as ¿Gypsies¿. In Ireland, since the late 1980s, there has also been a rise in a non-traditional group of travelling people, known as New Age Travellers. This chapter outlines demographic information on the Traveller population, in Ireland and elsewhere; examines key issues for the Traveller community, with a focus on health and education; suggests some of the main implications for social care practice; and concludes with a list of key Traveller organisations and a summary of the main legislative actions that have impacted on the lives of Travellers in Ireland.