Sustainable development must be built by, through and with the commitment of local communities. Stewart and Hams, (1991) argue that the requirements of sustainable development cannot merely be imposed but that active participation by local communities is needed. However, the terms ┐community┐, ┐host community┐ and ┐participation┐ can be interpreted in a myriad of ways. Before entering a full discussion of host community participation in tourism planning, it is first necessary to explore the various potential interpretations of these terms and to define their meaning and function. This chapter therefore clarifies some of the issues surrounding the terms; community, host, host community and participation. The major typologies and available models in relation to host community's participation in sustainable planning for tourism are also reviewed.